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Animal anesthesia and assisted breathing

Isoflurane

来源:本站 作者:玉研仪器 Time: 2016-09-21 Source: Site Author: Jade research instrument

Detailed introduction

   Isoflurane (anesthetic, inhalation anesthetic) (used for induction of anesthesia and maintenance of anesthesia to reduce the pain caused by surgery, in line with animal welfare, please call for consultation)


Packaging: 100ml / bottle

Storage conditions: brown glass bottle, protected from light, in a cool place, not exceeding 20 ° C

Shelf life: 48 months

Isoflurane English name: Isoflurane


Isoflurane is an isomer of Enflurane, a colorless, clear liquid, volatile, and has a slight odor. It is an inhalation anesthetic, and anesthesia induction and resuscitation are fast. It is less biotransformed than enflurane and is almost completely cleared by the lungs. This means that it induces little to the liver drug enzyme system, and therefore has little interference with pharmacokinetic and toxicological tests. There is no sympathetic nervous system excitement during anesthesia, which can slightly sensitize the heart to the effect of adrenaline and have a certain muscle relaxation effect. Isoflurane is increasingly widely used in animal experiments.



Isoflurane can induce anesthesia quickly, and animals recover quickly from anesthesia. Isoflurane is mildly irritating, which limits its induction rate, but the throat and trachea and bronchi do not have excessive secretions. The reflex in the throat can be relieved quickly. Isoflurane anesthesia levels change rapidly. The drug is a deep breathing inhibitor, so you must pay close attention to your breathing status and provide respiratory support if necessary. Anesthesia dose increases, tidal volume decreases but breathing frequency does not change. Respiratory depression can be partially reversed by surgical stimulation. Isoflurane can provoke a sighing response, similar to that seen in ether and enflurane anesthesia, but it occurs much less frequently than enflurane.

Anesthesia begins with a decrease in blood pressure but surgical stimulation deflects it in the normal direction. Deeper anesthesia is accompanied by a corresponding decrease in blood pressure. N2O reduces the concentration of isoflurane in inhalation, so its blood pressure lowering effect is weaker than that of isoflurane alone. No abnormal changes in heart rhythm. With controlled ventilation and PaCO2, cardiac output is maintained stable by increasing heart rate to compensate for the decrease in stroke volume. Hypercapnia, which naturally occurs during ventilation, further stimulates the increase in heart rate, making its cardiac output higher than when awake. Isoflurane did not increase the exogenous epinephrine sensitivity of the experimental dog heart muscle. Limited experimental data indicate that subcutaneous injection of 0.25 mg of epinephrine has no tendency to exacerbate ventricular arrhythmias in isoflurane-anesthetized patients.

Normal levels of anesthesia can produce sufficient muscle relaxation for intra-abdominal surgery. Small doses of muscle relaxants can completely paralyze muscles. All commonly used muscle relaxants can be combined with isoflurane for long-lasting effects in non-depolarized patients. Neostigmine can counteract the effects of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants in the presence of isoflurane.

Isoflurane can cause coronary vasodilation in some animal models and may have a similar effect on humans. Like other coronary arterial dilatation drugs, isoflurane also allows blood flow from collateral-dependent myocardial tissue to areas of normal perfusion (coronary steal) in animal experiments. Clinical evaluation studies conducted to date have used myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, and death as out-of-hospital indicators, and found that the characteristics of isoflurane expansion of coronary arteries have nothing to do with myocardial ischemia and "stealing blood" in patients with coronary heart disease.

【Pharmacokinetics】

Isoflurane rarely undergoes biotransformation in the body. Over a period of time after anesthesia, only 0.17% of isoflurane was converted to metabolites in the urine.

[Indications]

For induction and maintenance of general surgical anesthesia. There is insufficient data to confirm the availability of obstetric surgery.

[Usage and dosage]

The nebulizer for inhaled anesthesia isoflurane should be strictly calibrated to enable accurate control of the concentration of anesthetic agent injected. An isoflurane-specific evaporator should be used to accurately adjust the anesthetic agent concentration. The MAC value of isoflurane changes with age. The average MAC value of different age groups is as follows:

0 ~ 1 month 1.6%

1 to 6 months 1.87%

6-12 months 1.8%

1-5 years 1.6%

Around 25 years old 1.28%

Around 45 years old 1.15%

Around 65 years old 1.05%

Inhalation concentration

During isoflurane anesthesia, the concentration inhaled from the nebulizer should be very clear. The following two methods can be used:

1) Adjust the atomizer parameters for the use of isoflurane

2) Calculated according to the method of saturating the atomizing solution and then diluting it. The formula is as follows:

Where: Pa = air pressure

Pv = atomized isoflurane pressure

Fv = nebulizer flow rate (ml / min)

Ft = total gas flow rate (ml / min)

Isoflurane contains no stabilizers and has no components that affect the calibration or operation of the nebulizer.

Anesthesia induction

When induced with isoflurane, it is recommended to start from 0.5% concentration and gradually increase the concentration to 1.5% to 3.0% within 7 to 10 minutes to achieve the anesthetic effect required for surgery. However, during this induction period, inhalation of oxygen or oxygen-N2O mixed gas can cause cough, apnea, and laryngospasm. These reactions can be avoided by using hypnotic doses of barbiturates.

Anesthesia maintenance

When nitric oxide is accompanied by inhalation, the concentration of 1.0-2.5% can maintain the level of surgical anesthesia. If it is accompanied by inhalation of oxygen, the concentration should be increased by 0.5-1.0%. If necessary, muscle relaxants can be added.

The relationship between blood pressure and isoflurane concentration is opposite. If it is too low, adjust the amount of isoflurane appropriately.

Or as directed by your doctor.

【Adverse reactions】

1. Adverse reactions at regular doses are mainly respiratory depression, hypotension and arrhythmia.

2. There may be tremors, nausea, vomiting and intestinal obstruction after surgery.

3. Leukocyte elevation is a common response to general anesthetics.

4. After clinical application of this drug, there have been reports of postoperative liver dysfunction, and its relationship with isoflurane is inconclusive.

5. Due to the biodegradation of isoflurane, there is a slight increase in serum organic fluorine in the use of isoflurane and after the use of isoflurane. This slight increase in organic fluorine concentration (averaged 4.4 μmol / L according to a study report) is unlikely to cause kidney toxicity. Because this concentration is far below the threshold that causes kidney toxicity.

6. Mild discomfort (such as chills, nausea, and vomiting) during anesthesia resuscitation, similar to the response of other anesthetics.

7. Malignant hyperthermia has been reported.

8. Isoflurane-induced changes in EEG and associated convulsions are rare.

【medicine interactions】

Isoflurane enhances the effects of muscle relaxants, especially non-depolarizing muscle relaxants. MAC decreases with nitrous oxide accompanied by inhalation. It has been reported that isoflurane can produce carbon monoxide after reacting with dry carbon dioxide absorbers. To reduce carbon monoxide production in the rebreathing circuit to reduce blood carbon monoxide and hemoglobin, the use of carbon dioxide desiccants that are too dry should be avoided.

[Drug overdose]

In the case of overdose, the following measures should be taken: stop medication, establish breathing passages, and control the inhalation of pure oxygen.

Traditional anesthesia

Diethyl ether anesthesia is not suitable for induction of anesthesia; those who are likely to cause acute respiratory infections, diabetes, increased intracranial pressure, and severe damage to liver and kidney functions are contraindicated; flammable and explosive when exposed to oxygen, and inconvenient to use, its use has been gradually reduced and Gradually eliminated.

Injection anesthesia has severe respiratory and cardiovascular inhibitory effects and short apnea effects; poor analgesic effects; not suitable for animals with liver and kidney diseases; resuscitation is difficult, requires strict dose control, and is prone to accidents and mortality high.

Advantages of inhaled gas (isoflurane) anesthesia

Quick and stable induction and resuscitation; controlled depth of anesthesia

Little impact on animal's physiological indicators and vital signs

Chemical stability, low body metabolic rate, suitable for various experiments

In general, isoflurane gas anesthesia has fewer complications and low mortality; good experimental repeatability; does not affect the physiological indicators of animals; suitable for various animals; internationally used anesthesia methods, and the results are easily recognized internationally.

 


根据 需要配合 气体麻醉机 使用。 Can be used with a gas anesthesia machine as required .

Small animal gas anesthesia machine

It can realize rapid induced anesthesia and long-term maintenance anesthesia for experimental animals such as rats and mice.

 



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