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Anesthesia is a state of unconsciousness, sedation, muscle relaxation, and no reflexes. At present, anesthesia can be divided into injection anesthesia and inhalation anesthesia according to the type of drug. The ideal anesthetic should be easy to handle, provide fast and adequate anesthesia maintenance, have no side effects, be reversible, and harmless to animals and operators. However, such anesthetics do not exist, and the appropriate choice of anesthesia needs to be determined according to the needs of different experiments.
In fact, many animal experiments require experimental animals to be performed under relatively fixed conditions, such as in vivo imaging, craniotomy brain function research, and organ transplantation. Under normal circumstances, animals will not cooperate with the development of these experiments, and most of the experimental procedures will be accompanied by pain, and anesthesia and analgesia techniques provide the possibility of these experiments.
大 小鼠实验中非常常用的注射类麻醉剂，它们经常会与诸如乙酰丙嗪、甲苯噻嗪、安定（地西泮）和一些镇静类药物联合使用；而异氟烷、七氟烷和地氟烷是吸入式麻醉中常用的麻醉剂。 At present, avertine, sodium pentobarbital, and ketamine are very commonly used injectable anesthetics in mice and mice. They are often used with drugs such as acepromazine, xylazine, diazepam, and some sedatives. Used in combination; isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane are commonly used inhalers.
Compared with injection anesthesia, inhalation anesthesia has the following advantages:
Duration of anesthesia
Wake up quickly, suitable for short-term anesthesia, and it is also conducive to changing the anesthesia strategy and precisely controlling the depth of anesthesia
，无法调控麻醉时长和麻醉深度 Recovery speed is slow, and you cannot wake up immediately after injection. You also need to use a reversal agent to release the anesthesia state , and you cannot adjust the duration and depth of anesthesia
Anesthesia depth can be controlled by concentration, easy to use
Ineffective depth control
In vivo metabolism
Inhalation and elimination are in the lungs and are rarely absorbed without liver and kidney toxicity
Most need to be metabolized in the liver and kidney, which can potentially cause certain side effects
Impact on physiological indicators
， 可以抑制促炎因子 IL-1 、 TNF-α 和 IL-6 的分泌 Cardioprotective function, improve lung immunity , can inhibit the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors IL-1 , TNF-α and IL-6
抑制，使 血压 、 血糖 等指标 升高 Significantly inhibits heart rate and breathing speed , which increases blood pressure , blood glucose and other indicators
。 It has a wide range of applications and is safer, especially for in-depth and long-term anesthesia experiments . Including some other general anesthetic diseases should not be used, such as epilepsy, increased intracranial pressure, myasthenia gravis, diabetes, bronchial asthma, etc.
Have certain limitations
注射式麻醉剂 Commonly used injectable anesthetics
Barbiturates ） Barbiturates
pentobarbital ） Pentobarbital
Cardiovascular and respiratory depression
GABA 药物，抑制去甲肾上腺素和谷氨酸盐的释放 GABA- like drugs that inhibit norepinephrine and glutamate release
thiobarbital ） ( Thiobarbital )
(Varies by strain)
Tribromoethanol ） Tribromoethanol
Avertin ） ( Avertin )
Cardiopulmonary depression, hyperglycemia, peritonitis, intestinal obstruction and peritoneal adhesions
16 天的小鼠中有不确定性，在肥胖、高血糖以及转基因小鼠中表现出不确定性；二次使用时死亡率会提高 Unregulated drugs, which have the effect of relaxing muscles and short-acting anesthesia; uncertainty in mice less than 16 days, and uncertainty in obese, hyperglycemic and transgenic mice; death on second use Rate will increase
Dissociative Anesthetics ） Dissociative Anesthetics
Ketamine ） Ketamine
（犬猫） 15-20 min (dogs and cats)
Increases intracranial blood flow, intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal fluid pressure, and cerebral oxygen consumption, promotes eye opening and leads to corneal chapped
NMDA 受体的拮抗作用导致麻醉，镇痛效果明显，其中氯胺酮是常用的麻醉药物，替来他明的效果是氯胺酮的 10 倍；它们经常与其他麻醉药联合使用，无肌肉僵直和促惊厥作用 The antagonism of NMDA receptors leads to anesthesia and obvious analgesic effects. Among them, ketamine is a commonly used narcotic, and the effect of ketamine is 10 times that of ketamine . They are often used in combination with other anesthetics without muscle stiffness and convulsions effect
Tiletamine ） Tiletamine
肾上腺素激动剂（ Alpha-2 Adrenergic Agonists ） Alpha-2 Adrenergic Agonists
Xylazine ） Xylazine
Increase or decrease blood pressure, increase resistance in the peripheral vasculature, reduce pumping of the heart, increase pressure in the central vein, respiratory depression, increase the risk of hyperglycemia, diuresis, and hyperhematuria
This combination is one of the most widely used in injection anesthesia. 肾上腺素激动剂可以针对特异性受体发挥镇痛作用，可以使用 1mg/kg 阿替美唑（ atipamezole ）逆转。 Alpha-2 epinephrine agonists can exert analgesic effects on specific receptors and can be reversed with 1 mg / kg atipamezole .
medetomidine ） Medetomidine
10 倍于赛拉嗪，作用方式和逆转方式和赛拉嗪类似 10 times more effective than xylazine, similar in action and reversal
Phenothiazine Tranquilizers ） Phenothiazine Tranquilizers
acerpromazine ） Acepromazine
CNS 损伤中使用 Cardiovascular suppression and lowering blood pressure, as well as lowering convulsive threshold, not recommended for CNS injury
A stabilizer that has less effect on the respiratory system but has no analgesic effect. It is mainly used in combination with ketamine and xylazine to enhance the anesthetic effect.
Benzodiazepines ） Benzodiazepines
diazepam ） Diazepam
GABAA 受体，较低的心肺抑制，可用于心血管和代谢类疾病以及大龄动物的疾病，可以被 GABA 逆转剂氟马西尼（ Flumazenil ）逆转恢复 Water-soluble, acts on GABAA receptors, lower cardiopulmonary inhibition, can be used for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and diseases of older animals, can be reversed and restored by GABA reversal agent Flumazenil
midazolam ） Midazolam
Fat-soluble, shorter than Diazepam
Opioids ） Opioids
Morphine ） Morphine
Can be exposed to some extent to the side effects of agonists, such as: respiratory depression, bradycardia, peripheral vasodilation due to histamine release, etc.
Meperidine ） Meperidine
Fentanyl ） Fentanyl
Buprenorphine ） Buprenorphine
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