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You are here: ⎝⎛七乐彩⎞⎠ > Technical Support> Isoflurane Inhalation Anesthesia
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Isoflurane inhalation anesthesia

来源:玉研仪器 作者:玉研仪器 Time: 2016-07-13 Source: Research instrument of jade: jade research instrument

Anesthesia is a state of unconsciousness, sedation, muscle relaxation, and no reflexes. At present, anesthesia can be divided into injection anesthesia and inhalation anesthesia according to the type of drug. The ideal anesthetic should be easy to handle, provide fast and adequate anesthesia maintenance, have no side effects, be reversible, and harmless to animals and operators. However, such anesthetics do not exist, and the appropriate choice of anesthesia needs to be determined according to the needs of different experiments.

 

In fact, many animal experiments require experimental animals to be performed under relatively fixed conditions, such as in vivo imaging, craniotomy brain function research, and organ transplantation. Under normal circumstances, animals will not cooperate with the development of these experiments, and most of the experimental procedures will be accompanied by pain, and anesthesia and analgesia techniques provide the possibility of these experiments.

 

小鼠实验中非常常用的注射类麻醉剂,它们经常会与诸如乙酰丙嗪、甲苯噻嗪、安定(地西泮)和一些镇静类药物联合使用;而异氟烷、七氟烷和地氟烷是吸入式麻醉中常用的麻醉剂。 At present, avertine, sodium pentobarbital, and ketamine are very commonly used injectable anesthetics in mice and mice. They are often used with drugs such as acepromazine, xylazine, diazepam, and some sedatives. Used in combination; isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane are commonly used inhalers.

 

Compared with injection anesthesia, inhalation anesthesia has the following advantages:

 

Isoflurane

Injection anesthesia

Duration of anesthesia

Wake up quickly, suitable for short-term anesthesia, and it is also conducive to changing the anesthesia strategy and precisely controlling the depth of anesthesia

,无法调控麻醉时长和麻醉深度 Recovery speed is slow, and you cannot wake up immediately after injection. You also need to use a reversal agent to release the anesthesia state , and you cannot adjust the duration and depth of anesthesia

Anesthesia control

Anesthesia depth can be controlled by concentration, easy to use

Ineffective depth control

In vivo metabolism

Inhalation and elimination are in the lungs and are rarely absorbed without liver and kidney toxicity

Most need to be metabolized in the liver and kidney, which can potentially cause certain side effects

Impact on physiological indicators

可以抑制促炎因子 IL-1 TNF-α IL-6 的分泌 Cardioprotective function, improve lung immunity , can inhibit the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors IL-1 , TNF-α and IL-6

抑制,使 血压 血糖 等指标 升高 Significantly inhibits heart rate and breathing speed , which increases blood pressure , blood glucose and other indicators

Use range

It has a wide range of applications and is safer, especially for in-depth and long-term anesthesia experiments . Including some other general anesthetic diseases should not be used, such as epilepsy, increased intracranial pressure, myasthenia gravis, diabetes, bronchial asthma, etc.

Have certain limitations

 

Attached:

注射式麻醉剂 Commonly used injectable anesthetics

category

Drug Name

Action time

Adverse reactions

Drug description

Barbiturates Barbiturates

pentobarbital Pentobarbital

60-120 min

Cardiovascular and respiratory depression

GABA 药物,抑制去甲肾上腺素和谷氨酸盐的释放 GABA- like drugs that inhibit norepinephrine and glutamate release

Thibarbital

thiobarbital ( Thiobarbital )

10-20 min

(Varies by strain)

Tribromoethanol Tribromoethanol

Avertin

Avertin ( Avertin )

15-30 min

Cardiopulmonary depression, hyperglycemia, peritonitis, intestinal obstruction and peritoneal adhesions

16 天的小鼠中有不确定性,在肥胖、高血糖以及转基因小鼠中表现出不确定性;二次使用时死亡率会提高 Unregulated drugs, which have the effect of relaxing muscles and short-acting anesthesia; uncertainty in mice less than 16 days, and uncertainty in obese, hyperglycemic and transgenic mice; death on second use Rate will increase

Dissociative Anesthetics Dissociative Anesthetics

Ketamine Ketamine

(犬猫) 15-20 min (dogs and cats)

Increases intracranial blood flow, intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal fluid pressure, and cerebral oxygen consumption, promotes eye opening and leads to corneal chapped

NMDA 受体的拮抗作用导致麻醉,镇痛效果明显,其中氯胺酮是常用的麻醉药物,替来他明的效果是氯胺酮的 10 倍;它们经常与其他麻醉药联合使用,无肌肉僵直和促惊厥作用 The antagonism of NMDA receptors leads to anesthesia and obvious analgesic effects. Among them, ketamine is a commonly used narcotic, and the effect of ketamine is 10 times that of ketamine . They are often used in combination with other anesthetics without muscle stiffness and convulsions effect

Tiletamine Tiletamine

 

肾上腺素激动剂( Alpha-2 Adrenergic Agonists Alpha-2 Adrenergic Agonists

Xylazine Xylazine

 

Increase or decrease blood pressure, increase resistance in the peripheral vasculature, reduce pumping of the heart, increase pressure in the central vein, respiratory depression, increase the risk of hyperglycemia, diuresis, and hyperhematuria

This combination is one of the most widely used in injection anesthesia. 肾上腺素激动剂可以针对特异性受体发挥镇痛作用,可以使用 1mg/kg 阿替美唑( atipamezole )逆转。 Alpha-2 epinephrine agonists can exert analgesic effects on specific receptors and can be reversed with 1 mg / kg atipamezole .

medetomidine Medetomidine

 

10 倍于赛拉嗪,作用方式和逆转方式和赛拉嗪类似 10 times more effective than xylazine, similar in action and reversal

Phenothiazine Tranquilizers Phenothiazine Tranquilizers

acerpromazine Acepromazine

200-360 min

CNS 损伤中使用 Cardiovascular suppression and lowering blood pressure, as well as lowering convulsive threshold, not recommended for CNS injury

A stabilizer that has less effect on the respiratory system but has no analgesic effect. It is mainly used in combination with ketamine and xylazine to enhance the anesthetic effect.

Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines

diazepam Diazepam

 

 

GABAA 受体,较低的心肺抑制,可用于心血管和代谢类疾病以及大龄动物的疾病,可以被 GABA 逆转剂氟马西尼( Flumazenil )逆转恢复 Water-soluble, acts on GABAA receptors, lower cardiopulmonary inhibition, can be used for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and diseases of older animals, can be reversed and restored by GABA reversal agent Flumazenil

midazolam Midazolam

 

Fat-soluble, shorter than Diazepam

Opioids Opioids

Morphine Morphine

2-4 h

 

Can be exposed to some extent to the side effects of agonists, such as: respiratory depression, bradycardia, peripheral vasodilation due to histamine release, etc.

Meperidine Meperidine

2-3 h

Fentanyl Fentanyl

30 min

 

Buprenorphine Buprenorphine

12 h

 

 

 

 

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